In today’s world, roads are the true arteries, brings together all the major cities and small towns into a single network. The importance of highways for the development of industry, trade and agriculture is difficult to overestimate.
Often, only thanks to the improvement of transport links it is possible to increase trade turnover. People hurry along the roads in their cars, and truck drivers carry millions of tons of various cargoes. The road loads are enormous.
Therefore, road design is a very difficult task that only true professionals can handle. In general, road design is a complex set of survey work, which includes not only design and construction calculations, but also calculation and economic ones.
What connects the survey and design of highways?
Initially, comprehensive surveys of the target area are carried out. Thus, the survey and design of highways are inextricably linked, because the area must have the appropriate man-made, climatic and geological conditions. The development of the project and the complex of construction work itself are determined and regulated by regulatory documents.
At the same time, the norms for the design of highways imply, in addition to creating a road, a complex of additional structures, the development of a communications plan, afforestation, etc. Creation of a road project Also, specialists must determine the technical parameters, calculate the optimal amount of building materials, attract the appropriate number of special equipment and workers, set the stages and terms of construction, calculate the payback period of all funds spent during construction. It is necessary to complete all the work not only in the shortest possible time, but also as correctly as possible — making a few slightest mistakes is quite enough for the construction deadline to be disrupted, and the roads themselves out of order in a matter of months. Back to the table of contents How does the design of the roadbed for motor roads begin? approximate travel speed.
Designing public roads Highways, both urban and suburban, are constantly under the influence of permanent and temporary mechanical stress, as well as many climatic factors.
Also, snow drifts, precipitation, groundwater and a number of other factors have a destructive effect on the roadbed. This is the main reason why road design is such a difficult job that only experienced and sufficiently qualified engineers can be trusted. To develop a project, the implementation of which will allow solving the transport issue in a particular region, a specialist must have a certain amount of information. Only in this case it is possible to guarantee the required level of safety and ease of operation of the route for passenger and freight traffic.
How is a highway designed?
When designing a road, an engineer always takes into account that it not only connects federal and administrative points with each other, but also must meet safety standards for drivers, passengers and pedestrians. To do this, you need to take into account certain standards for the design of highways that provide the desired level of convenience and safety. If during the design, errors were made in the calculations of the future use of roads, this leads to problems. If they are not eliminated through quality repairs as soon as possible, the road will be quickly destroyed.
Therefore, when designing a road, it is necessary to calculate not only the loads that exist at the moment, but also a long-term plan for twenty years. If the plan is created without taking into account the perspective, it is considered of poor quality.
Long-term road construction plan Special attention should be paid to the technical classification of the route. This determines the type of roadbed, the number of lanes and a number of other parameters characteristic of each road. Therefore, it is especially important to determine the status of the road. It is also very important here to calculate the loads from the traffic flow, which will certainly increase over the years. After completing the calculations, the result is drawn up in the form of a working draft. It must include technical and estimate documentation, as well as detailed drawings containing data on the used curbs, sidewalks, signs, road markings and other important elements of the road. The working draft is also completed with an explanatory note. It explains in detail each solution that will be used during construction.
An explanatory note to the road construction plan. They also contain recommendations for laying communications, utilities, local estimates and much more. Necessarily contains all the necessary data on landscape design and the creation of conditions to ensure the safety of the environment.
The work doesn’t end there. The working draft is checked by several specialists who not only check whether the project complies with GOSTs and ShNKs, but also subject it to several examinations. At the same time, experts from the state inspection, as well as the inspection of the region, where the new highway will be built, may be present, for which calculations are underway.
Highway design standards
It should be understood that the basics of road design provide for a competent and most rational and careful cost